1. Printing by imaging systems that are fed imaging information as digital data from pre-press systems.
2. Computer ?to-plate Systems, which use printing plates, or other images carriers that do not require intermediate films.
3. Computer-to-print (Plateless): Systems that produce reproductions directly on the substrate without the need for intermediate films or plates
A. Electronic printers: Electrophotographic printers, for black or single color, used for short-run variable information and on-demand book publishing.
B. Color copiers: Usually Electrophotographic printers, for spot or four color process printing, used for making one or several copies of spot or four color process subjects.
C. Electronic printing systems: Electrophotographic, magnetographic, monographic, field effect, ink jet or thermal transfers printing. For One-colour, four color process or up to six-color printing. Used for some degree of variable information, on-demand. Examples of use are direct mail, temporary product labels for trade shows, billboard posters and the like.